General information

Mineral fuels

 

Gas
Propane-butane (LPG)
Chemicals
Chemicals & solvents
Petrol
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Distillates
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base oils
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Heavy fuel
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Heavy distillates
Road bitumen & goudron

 

 

Biofuels

 

The need of biodiesel and bioethanol development is driven not only by the high prices of petrol, but also by the consideration of lowering of the pollution of extracting and processing of petroleum and by special European directive, which aims the increasing of biofuels usage in the EU. In the document it is provided that all countries members of EU should increase the usage of biofuels up to 10% from the total fuel consumption till 2020. There is a another EU recommendatory regulation, which advises the petroleum refineries to purchase bioethanol and to mix it with the traditional petrol in ratio 2% to 98% from 2007 onwards.

 

Biodiesel is a fuel produced by biological resources different from petroleum.

Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oils – soy, rapeseed, and sunflower as well as from animal fats and it is used in automobile and other engines.

It is considered as the most perspective and ecologically clean fuel. Biodiesel improves the work of the engine, increasing its power, it does not contain sulphur and reduces the fuel consumption. Biodiesel can be used as pure biodiesel (indicated B100) or it could be mixed with mineral diesel at different ratios and it is suitable for the majority of the modern diesel engines. From 2012 the Bulgarian legislation provides a minimum volume of 6% biocomponent (indicated B6).

There are two principle approaches for biodiesel production:

A. The first relies on several consecutive chemical treatments of the initial raw oil. During these, ethyl or methyl esters of the fatty acids are produced. The chemical process is always connected with the production of glycerine and of other by-products. The quality of the that glycerine is low and it should be neutralized, as it is pollutant.

To avoid the described problems oil-based biofuel could be used by technology B.

B. In the second approach physiochemical and physical processing of the feedstock is being used. It does not require special stationary installation. It does not involve processes using toxic chemical reagents. This technology is used to produce biofuel only and it there are no pollutant by-products.

 

Bioethanol is a substitute for the traditional petrol. It is produced by corn, barley, sugar cane and others.

According the renewable sources energy law the content of bioethanol in the automotive gasoline should reach 9% (Indication B9) in 2016.

Bioethanol is a renewable source energy, a substitute or supplement to the traditional petroleum. The bioethanol is not only characterized with higher octane and provides accordingly more effective work of the engine, but also produces less harmful emissions in the atmosphere. The Bioethanol does not contain toxic components and sulphur and it is produced by waste-free process.

When combusted the bioethanol does not produce greenhouse gases, smell or smoke, but only water vapour and carbon dioxide as every live fire. The combustion of 1 litre bioethanol produces carbon dioxide equal to the quantity produced when burning two big candles.